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1 chilometro (kilometer) = approximately two thirds of a mile
1 metro (meter) = almost 40 inches or a little more than three feet (or a little more than one yard)
1 centimetro (centimeter) = less then half an inch

1 litro (liter) = approximately one quart

1 chilo (kilo) = a little more than 2 pounds
1 etto (hectogram) = 3.5 ounces


To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit:

  1. multiply by 2
  2. subtract 10%
  3. add 32

For example: 30°C x 2 = 60 – 6 = 54 + 32 = 86°F

To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius:

  1. subtract 32
  2. divide by 2
  3. add 10%

For example: 74°F – 32 = 42 ÷ 2 = 21 + 2.1 = 23°C

0°C = 32°F
10°C = 50°F
15°C = 59°F
20°C = 68°F
25°C = 77°F
30°C = 86°F
35°C = 95°F
37°C = 98.6°F
40°C = 104°F
100°C = 212°F


1 € = approximately $1.1 (the exchange rate has been unstable in recent times).
[For updated exchange rates, check out].
The coins are issued in €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, and 1c denominations. Banknotes are issued in €100, €50, €20, €10, €5 (there are also €500 and €200 banknotes but they are seldom used).
The euro is the currency of other 18 European countries, including Austria, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.


Note that in Italy commas and periods when writing numbers are used differently than in the United States. For instance, an item that cost two euro and 50 cents is written € 2,50 (with the comma) while an item that cost one thousand euro is written € 1.000 (with the period).

Date and time

The all-numeric form for dates is in the order day/month/year, using a slash as the separator. So 10/7/2020 means July 10, 2020.
Official time is always given in 24-hour format. The 24-hour notation is used in writing with a colon as a separator. Example: 14:05. The minutes are written with two digits; the hour numbers can be written with or without leading zero. In oral communication 12-hours are prominently used.

Trips from Siena

NYTFlorence2014SanGimignanoLonelyPlanet PisaTelegraphArezzo

Trips from Milan

TelegraphBergamoGuardianVicenzaLonelyPlanet VeronaTelegraphParmaTelegraphVeniceNYTRome2015

In Italy

In Milan

Things to do:

Teatro alla Scala: One of the finest opera theaters in the world.

Termemilano: The wellness oasis in the heart of Milan.




In Siena

The New York Times Travel Guides: Siena The Guardian: Siena prepares for Il Palio (video)Lonely Planet: Introducing SienaTelegraphPalio

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